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 Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals

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MesajSubiect: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:28 pm




Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals

Regi Regine .Tari Tarine . Printi Printese



http://www.theroyalforums.com/forums/f20/

http://orderofsplendor.blogspot.ro/2010/06/royal-fashion-awards-crown-princess.html


http://madhattery.royalroundup.com/


Ultima editare efectuata de catre utzy in Mier Ian 15, 2014 2:22 am, editata de 4 ori
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:35 pm

Tarul Nicolae I si Tarina Alexandra Feodorovna








personaje in Bednaya Nastya interpretind Tarul si Tarina


Ultima editare efectuata de catre utzy in Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:37 pm, editata de 1 ori
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:36 pm

Nicolae I al Rusiei



http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_I_al_Rusiei



Nicolae I al Rusiei

Domnie 1 decembrie 1825 – 2 martie 1855
Încoronare 3 septembrie 1826

Născut 6 iulie 1796
Palatul Gatchina
Decedat 2 martie 1855
St. Petersburg

Predecesor Alexandru I
Succesor Alexandru al II-lea

Căsătorit cu Alexandra Feodorovna
Moştenitor Alexandru al II-lea

Urmaşi


Ţarul Alexandru II
Marea Ducesă Maria Nikolaevna
Marea Ducesă Olga Nikolaevna
Marea Ducesă Alexandra Nikolaevna
Marele Duce Constantin Nicholaievici
Marele Duce Nicholas Nicolaievici
Marele Duce Mikhail Nicolaievici

Casa Regală Casa Romanov

Tată Paul I al Rusiei

Mamă Maria Feodorovna


Nicolae I al Rusiei (în limba rusă: Николай I Павлович, Nicolai I Pavlovici), (6 iulie (stil nou)/25 iunie (stil vechi), 1796–2 martie (stil nou)/18 februarie, (stil vechi), 1855), a fost Împărat al Rusiei din 1825 până în 1855, şi rege al Poloniei din 1825 până în 1831.

S-a născut la reşedinţa imperială de la Gatcina, fiind fiul împăratului Paul I şi al soţiei sale Sophie Marie Dorothea de Württemberg, rebotezată în Rusia ca Maria Fiodorovna. Era fratele mai mic al viitorului ţar Alexandru I şi al Marelui Duce Constantin Pavlovici.


Principiile domniei

Lui Nicolae îi lipseau cu desăvârşire larga deschidere spirituală şi intelectuală a fratelui său, Alexandru. A considerat că rolul lui ca împărat era doar acela de autocrat paternalist, care îşi guvernează poporul prin orice mijloace găseşte necesar. Având experinţa revoltei decembriste, Nicolae a fost hotărat să ţină în frâu toată societatea rusă. Poliţia secretă, aşa numita Secţia a treia a Cancelariei Maiestăţii Sale Imperiale, a creat o uriaşa reţea de informatori şi spioni, gestionată cu ajutorul jandarmeriei. Guvernul a exercitat cenzura şi controlul strict în domeniile educaţiei publice, presei şi a tutror manifestărilor vieţii publice. În 1833, ministrul educaţiei, Serghei Uvarov, a conceput un program numit "Autocraţie, ortodoxie şi naţionalitate" ca ghid călăuzitor al regimului. Poporul trebuia să fie loial autorităţii nelimitate a ţarului, bisericii ortodoxe şi, într-un mod vag definit, naţiunii ruse. Aceste principii nu s-au bucurat de susţinerea populară, în schimb au dus la represiuni în rândul naţionalităţilor ne-ruse şi a altor confesiuni decât cea ortodoxă. Astfel, guvernul a reprimat Biserica Unită din Ucraina şi Belarus în 1839.

Cultura

Accentul pus pe naţionalismul rusesc a dus la o dezbatere cu privire la locul Rusiei în lume, cu privire la sensul istoriei naţionale şi al viitorului ţării. Unul dintre grupuri, al occidentaliştilor, credeau că Rusia a rămas în urmă cu dezvoltarea, fiind o ţară primitivă şi nu se poate dezvolta decât prin europenizare. Grupul slavofililor, ridicau în slăvi slavii şi cultura şi obiceiurile lor şi se delimitau de occident şi cultura şi obiceiurile din această parte a lumii. Slavofilii considerau că filozofia slavă estesursă a împlinirii în Rusia şi erau sceptici faţă de materialismul şi raţionalismul european. Unii dintre ei credeau că obştea sătească tradiţională rusă – mir – oferea o alternativă atractivă la capitalismul occidental şi putea salva Rusia din punct de vedere social şi moral. Slavofilismul este privit din această ultimă cauză ca o formă de mesianism rusesc.

Politica externă

În politica externă, Nicolae I a acţionat ca protector al domniilor de drept şi luptător împotriva mişcărilor revoluţionare. Ofertele sale de înăbuşire a revoluţiilor de pe continentul european, acceptate uneori, i-au adus supranumele de jandarm al Europei. În 1825, Nicolae I a refuzat să fie încoronat monarh constituţional, iar în schimb a continuat să limiteze libertăţile monarhiei constituţionale a Poloniei. În schimb, după izbucnirea Revoltei din noiembrie în 1831, Seimul Poloniei i-a ridicat lui Nicolae I titlul de rege, ca răspuns la continua reducere a drepturilor constituţionale ale Parlamentului. Ţarul a reacţionat trimiţând trupele imperiale în Polonia. Rebeliunea a fost înăbuşită, Nicolae abrogând Constituţia, transformând Polonia într-o provincie a Imperiului (Привислинский Край – Privislinski Krai), totodată declanşând o politică de represiune a catolicilor.. În 1848, când o serie de revoluţii a zguduit Europa, Nicolae a fost vârful de lance al reacţiunii şi a intervenit în ajutorul Habsburgilor pentru înăbuşirea revoluţiei din Ungaria. De asemenea, a făcut presiuni asupra Prusiei să nu accepte o constituţie liberală. După ce a ajutat forţele reacţionare din Europa să înfrângă revoluţiile, se părea că Rusia lui Nicolae I domină Europa.

Dominaţia rusă s-a dovedit iluzorie până în cele din urmă. În vreme ce încerca să menţină status quo-ul în Europa, Nicolae a adoptat o politică agresivă faţă de Imperiul Otoman. El urmărea linia tradiţională a politicii externe ţariste de rezolvare a aşa-numitei Probleme Orientale prin împărţirea Imperiului Otoman şi stabilirea unui protectorat asupra populaţiei ortodoxe din Balcanii aflate încă sub stăpânirea turcilor. Rusia a repurtat victorii în războiul din 1828 – 1829. În 1833, Rusia a semnat cu Imperiul Otoman Tratatul de la Hünkâr İskelesi. Cele mai importante puteri europene au crezut în mod greşit că tratatul conţinea o clauză secretă care ar fi permis Rusiei să trimită corăbii de răboi în Marea Mediterană prin strâmtorile Bosfor şi Dardanele. Prin Convenţia strâmtorilor din 1841, puterile europene au reafirmat dreptul la control deplin al turcilor asupra strâmmtorilor şi a interzis tuturor puterilor, inclusiv Rusiei, să trimită vreo flotă prin strâmtori. Bazându-se pe rolul jucat în înăbuşirea revoluţiilor de la 1848 şi crezând în mod greşit că se bucură de sprijinul diplomatic al Angliei, Nicolae a atacat încă o dată Imperiul Otoman în 1853. Regatul Unit şi Franţa, temându-se de consecinţele unei înfrângeri a turcilor în război, s-au aliat cu otomanii în 1854 şi i-au sprijinit în războiul Crimeii. Austria a oferit sprijin diplomatic Turciei, iar Prusia a rămas neutră, lăsând Rusia fără aliaţi în Europa. Aliaţii europeni ai otomanilor au debarcat în Crimeea, asediind puternica fortăreaţă de la Sevastopol, care a fost cucerită după un an. Asediul a fost o dovadă tristă a incapacităţii Rusiei de a-şi apăra propriul teritoriu. Nicolae I a murit înainte de încheierea asediului, dar el era deja conştient de eşecul guvernării sale. Rusia a fost astfel obligată să înceapă o serie de reforme majore, altfel putând să-şi piardă statutul de mare putere europeană.


Ultima editare efectuata de catre utzy in Mier Ian 23, 2013 4:05 pm, editata de 3 ori
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:36 pm

Charlotte a Prusiei


http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_a_Prusiei



Alexandra Feodorovna, născută Prinţesa Charlotte a Prusiei, (13 iulie 1798 – 1 noiembrie 1860) a fost soţia Ţarului Nicolae I al Rusiei şi mama Ţarului Alexandru al II-lea.

Prinţesă a Prusiei

Alexandra Feodorovna s-a născut la 13 iulie 1798 la Castelul Charlottenburg, ca Prinţesa Frederica Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina a Prusiei. A fost fiica regelui Frederic Wilhelm al III-lea al Prusiei şi a Louisei de Mecklenburg-Strelitz şi sora lui Frederic Wilhelm al IV-lea al Prusiei şi a împăratului Wilhelm I al Germaniei.

Copilăria Prinţesei Charlotte a fost marcată de războaiele napoleoniene. După înfrângerea armatei Prusiei de către francezi, Prinţesa Charlotte şi întreaga ei familie au fost forţaţi să se refugieze în estul Prusiei, unde erau sub protecţia Ţarului Alexandru I al Rusiei. Mama Charlottei a murit în 1810, la scurt timp după aniversarea de doisprezece ani a Prinţesei şi pentru tot restul vieţii ea a preţuit memoria mamei. Charlotte a rămas ataşată de Prusia şi de familia ei toată viaţa.

În toamna anului 1814, Marele Duce Nicolae Pavlovici al Rusiei, viitorul Ţar Nicolae I al Rusiei şi fratele său Marele Duce Mihail, au vizitat Berlinul. Cele două familii regale au făcut aranjamente de a-i căsători pe Nicolae şi Charlotte. Nicolae s-a îndrăgostit de prinţesa în vârstă de 17 ani iar sentimentul a fost reciproc. Erau verişori de gradul trei: amândoi erau stră-strănepoţi ai regelui Frederic Wilhelm I al Prusiei.

La 9 iunie 1817 Prinţesa Charlotte a vizitat Rusia împreună cu fratele ei, Wilhelm. După ce au ajuns la St. Petersburg Charlotte s-a convertit la credinţa ortodoxă şi şi-a luat numele rusesc Alexandra Feodorovna. La aniversarea ei de 19 ani, la 13 iulie 1817 Alexandra Feodorovna s-a căsătorit cu Nicolae la Palatul de Iarnă.

La început, Alexandra Feodorovna a avut probleme de adaptare la Curtea rusă, shimbarea religiei a afectat-o şi era copleşită de noile împrejmuiri. S-a înţeles bine cu soarca sa, Maria Feodorovna, însă nu acelaşi lucru se poate spune despre cumnata sa Împărăteasa Elizabeth Alexeievna, soţia Ţarului Alexandru I.

Mare Ducesă a Rusiei

La câteva săptămâni după nuntă, Alexandra a rămas însărcinată. La 17 aprilie 1818 ea a născut primul ei copil, viitorul Ţar Alexandru al II-lea al Rusiei iar anul următor ea a avut o fiică Marea Ducesă Maria Nikolaevna. După pierderea unei sarcini Alexandra a suferit o depresie adâncă iar doctorii au sfătuit-o să-şi ia o vacanţă; în toamna anului 1820 împreună cu Nicolae şi familia ei a vizitat Berlinul, unde au rămas până în vara anului 1821. În vara anului 1824 au revenit în Berlin întorcându-se la St. Petersburg în martie 1825 când Ţarul Alexandru I l-a chemat pe Nicolae în Rusia.

Timp de opt ani, în timpul domniei lui Alexandru I, cuplul a trăit liniştit fără să se gândească la posibilitatea de a ocupa tronul Rusiei. Ţarul Alexandru nu avea copii iar moştenitorul său, Marele Duce Constantin Pavlovici al Rusiei a renunţat la drepturile la succesiune în 1822, Nicolae devenind noul Ţarevici.

În 1825, Alexandra a primit de la cumnatul ei, Ţarul Alexandru, Palatul Peterhof, unde ea şi Nicolae au trăit fericii. Peterhof a rămas reşedinţa ei de vară favorită.

Împărăteasă a Rusiei

Alexandra Feodorovna a devenit Împărăteasă odată cu ascensiunea pe tronul Rusiei a soţului ei ca Ţarul Nicolae I. A fost o perioadă tulbure marcată de represiunea sângeroasă a Revoltei decembriştilor.

Până în 1832 Nicolae şi Alexandra au avut şapte copii pe care i-au crescut cu grijă. Nicolae şi-a iubit toată viaţa soţia pe care o alinta “Mouffy”. După 25 de ani de fidelitate Nicolae a avut o metresă, pe nume Barbara Nelidova, o doamnă de onoare a Alexandrei; doctorii îi interziseseră Alexandrei activitatea sexuală din cauza sănătăţii sale precare. În 1845, Nicolae a plâns când doctorii de la curte au cerut Împărătesei să plece la Palermo pentru câteva luni pentru a-şi îngriji sănătatea. Când a înţeles că Alexandra nu mai are nici o şansă, Nicolae a făcut tot posibilul să i se alăture chiar dacă numai pentru puţin timp. Nelidova a mers cu ei şi deşi la început Alexandra era geloasă, curând a acceptat aventura şi a rămas în termeni buni cu metresa soţului ei.

Împărăteasa Alexandra Feodorovna a fost întotdeauna fragilă şi a avut o sănătate precară. La vârsta de patruzeci de ani arăta mult mai în vârstă şi era din ce în ce mai subţire. În 1837 Împărăteasa a ales ca reşedinţă Crimeea. Acolo, Nicolae a construit Palatul Oreanda pentru ea. La sfâritul anului 1854, Alexandra Feodorovna era foarte bolnavă însă a reuşit să-şi revină. În 1855 Ţarul Nicolae a contactat o gripă şi a murit la 6/18 februarie.

Alexandra Feodorovna a supravieţuit soţului ei cinci ani. S-a retras la Palatul Alexander la Tsarskoe Selo şi a rămas în termeni buni cu metresa soţului ei, Barbara Nelidova, pe care a numit-o cititorul ei personal.

Sănătatea Împărătesei mamă a devenit din ce în ce mai fragilă. Iernile Rusiei erau prea aspre pentru ea astfel încât şi le petrecea în străinătate. În toamna anului 1860 doctorii i-au recomandat să părăsească Rusia însă Alexandra a preferat să stea la St.Petersburg. A murit în somn la vârsta de 62 de ani la 1 noiembrie 1860 la Palatul Alexander din Tsarskoe Selo.
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Ultima editare efectuata de catre utzy in Mier Ian 23, 2013 4:06 pm, editata de 2 ori
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:39 pm

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:39 pm

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:40 pm



Ultima editare efectuata de catre utzy in Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:44 pm, editata de 2 ori
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:41 pm

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:44 pm

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MesajSubiect: Bijuteriile Reginelor / Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:46 pm

Bijuteriile Reginelor / Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals


Ultima editare efectuata de catre utzy in Mier Mar 13, 2013 3:41 pm, editata de 2 ori
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:47 pm

Reginele iubesc perlele

Se spune că, născută dintr-un accident, perla este rezultatul hazardului şi al răbdării: un fir de praf se strecoară într-o cochilie şi deranjează scoica "locatară"; aceasta încearcă să îndepărteze intrusul, şi timp de ani buni, îl acoperă cu straturi succesive de nacru sau sidef. Cu cât rămâne mai mult timp nedescoperită în cochilia scoicii, cu atât perla este mai mare, iar reflexele ei mai fascinante. Culoarea perlelor naturale variază de la alb la alb- roz, galben, gri, albastrui, antracit sau negru. Ele sunt pescuite de mii de ani, dar în zilele noastre numărul lor a scăzut mult şi din cauza poluării marine. Cele perfect sferice se întâlnesc rar, varietatea foarte răspândită fiind în formă de pară sau de aglomerări neregulare de sidef. În compensaţie, s-a dezvoltat o prosperă industrie de producţie controlată a perlelor de cultură, care scoate "piese" ce pot rivaliza cu perlele naturale. Valoarea acestor pietre preţioase se stabileşte evaluând luciul, suprafaţa (sferică şi netedă), culoarea (ţine de moda şi de vremuri; astăzi în SUA sunt vânate cele cu tentă roz), mărimea, forma. Legenda mai povesteşte că perla s-ar fi născut din Lună, care, priveşte spre pământ şi participă la suferinţele oamenilor. Şi de compasiune pentru ei, începe să plângă. Din aceste lacrimi căzute pe ape s-ar naşte perlele care sunt prinse de scoici în cochilia lor, cu dorinţa de a le proteja.

"Peregrina" reginei Elisabeta I a ajuns la Liz Taylor
De sute şi sute de ani, Perla este cea mai aristocratică şi cea mai veche piatră preţioasă. Primul fragment dintr-o perlă se află expus la muzeul Luvru, şi a fost descoperit în sarcofagul unei prinţese persane, moartă în 520, adică acum o mie şi cinci sute de ani !. Cinci secole mai târziu, Iulius Cesar limita folosirea perlelor de către oficialii de rang înalt ai Imperiului Roman, iar în epoca de glorie a Imperiului Britanic, numai reginei i se permitea acest privilegiu.În secolul XVI, perlele ajunseseră atât de familiare la astfel de nivele, încât Ana Bolena, a doua soţie a regelui Henric al VIII-lea, şi mamă a Elisabetei I, le folosea pentru a-şi acoperi un neg care îi apăruse pe gât.
Elisabeta I şi regina Victoria, două dintre personalităţile cele mai celebre din istoria Marii Britanii, erau pasionate de frumuseţea, sobrietatea şi eleganţa perlelor.
Elisabeta I ajunsese chiar să exagereze, poate şi pentru că perlele reprezentau (printre alte multe lucruri) virtutea şi castitatea, iar ea şi supuşii săi presupuneau că aceste pietre sunt mărturie a « virginităţii » ei.Regina purta şiragurile de perle ca pe un colan, care, deseori îi ajungea până la genunchi; rochiile îi erau împodobite cu perle, iar diademele aveau obligatoriu şi perle. Obsesia pentru aceste pietre preţioase a făcut-o pe suverană să-şi dorească o piesă unică, perfectă. Aceasta era Peregrina, o perlă la care visau multe capete încoronate. Este aceeaşi piesă pe care actorul Richard Burton a cumpărat-o patru secole mai târziu, în 1969, cu 57.000 dolari, pentru Elizabeth Taylor, care a apărut în numeroase filme cu această bijuterie.Astăzi, actriţa spune că perla a salvat-o din multe suferinţe.

Colecţia reginei Maria, unică !
Atunci când împărăteasa Rusiei, Maria Feodorovna sora reginei Alexandra a Angliei, a scăpat din revoluţia din ţara sa, reîntorcându-se în Anglia, a adus cu ea câteva piese dintr-o colecţie impresionantă de bijuterii unice. După moartea ei, cele două fiice s-au hotărât să le vândă şi au apelat la regele George V. Regina Maria a României a profitat de boala subită a regelui şi, mare amatoare de bijuterii, s-a oferit să plătească jumătate din preţul corect al acestor celebre piese, dornică să le cumpere. Se pare că restul de bani a fost plătit de suverana Angliei, care era bunica Mariei.În anul 1910, înaltul comisionar al Africii de Sud a cumparat 102 diamante rezultate din tăierea diamantului Cullinan, de 3025 karate şi le-a dăruit reginei Maria. Suverana avea în colecţia sa şi şiraguri de perle, brăţări şi cercei cu aceleaşi pietre preţioase, iar diademele preferate erau cele cu perle. Sigur, nu însemna că nu era îndrăgostită şi de diamante, de safire, de smaralde sau rubin, care se găseau din plin în caseta ei de bijuterii….De altfel, safirul unic al reginei Maria a fost vândut la Casa de licitaţii Christie’s din Geneva în ziua de 19 noiembrie 2003, pentru 1,5 milioane dolari ! Bijuteria o primise, se pare, de la regele Ferdinand, la moartea fiului lor mai mic, Mircea. (safirul fusese cumpărat de rege chiar de la Ducky, sora soţiei sale). În ultimul testament făcut de Maria se precizează că "bijuteriile le-am dat, din timpul vietii, copiilor": Carol (viitorul rege) primea crucea cu safirul cel mare şi diamantul cu terminaţia în formă de ancoră; Elisabeta - diadema cu cercuri bătute în formă de coroană, pe care regina o primise cu ocazia participării la încoronarea ţarului Nicolae al II-lea ; Marioarei i-au fost date diadema cu safire şi diamante şi cerceii cu smarald înconjurat de diamante, care îi fuseseră dăruite mamei ei la botezul prinţesei; lui Nicolae i-au revenit "diadema din turcoaze cu crucea de diamant şi toate celelalte bijuterii din turcoaze şi diamante ca şi broşa tăiată în safire şi diamante, oferită Mariei de ţarul Nicolae al II-lea la botez (ca naş); Ileana, copilul cel mai drag al reginei, a primit broşa mare cu aqua-marine (pe care regina a purtat-o la botezul fiicei) şi întreaga colecţie de perle.

Tradiţie de un secol şi jumătate
În 1837, Victoria a moştenit tronul Marii Britanii şi odată cu el bijuteriile din seiful casei regale, care conţinea perlele reginelor Ana şi Carolina, dar şi pe cele ale Mariei Stuart, regina Scoţiei şi a Franţei. Perlele fuseseră moştenite de aceasta de la şase regine din Europa. Una dintre ele a fost Caterina de Médicis, soţia lui Henric II, rege al Franţei, care primise perlele ca dar de nuntă, în 1540, de la unchiul ei, Papa Clemente VII; Caterina i le-a dăruit Mariei Stuart când aceasta a devenit nora ei, căsătorindu-se cu fiul cel mare, viitorul rege Francisc II. Rămânând văduvă la 18 ani, Maria s-a reîntors în ţara sa, luând cu ea perlele primite ; la fel a făcut şi când revoluţia a obligat-o să se refugieze în Marea Britanie, unde credea că se va afla sub protecţia reginei Elisabeta I, dar a sfârşit prin a fi decapitată. Apoi, Elisabeta I a cumpărat o parte din faimoasele perle ale verişoarei sale, dar înainte de a muri, în 1603, a lăsat aceste bijuterii lui Iacob I, fiul reginei decapitate. El le-a dăruit fiicei lui Elizabeth, regină în Bohemia, şi aceasta i le-a oferit fiicei sale Sofía, soţia principelui de Hannover. Finalmente, perlele s-au întors în Anglia, când fiul Sofiei a fost chemat să ocupe tronul sub numele de regele George I… A şasea stăpână a lor a fost regina Victoria, care le-a declarat bijuterii ale Coroanei şi acum ele se află în Turnul Londrei, cu celelalte bijuterii regale.
Victoria, regina Marii Britanii, a primit primul şirag din perle la vârsta de doi ani, iar la 16 ani bijuteria preferată era tot un colier de perle, care se înfăşura în jurul gâtului de cinci ori, plus o brăţară. Chiar şi în ziua nunţii, tânăra regină a purtat tot perle ! Victoria a domnit 65 de ani şi a iniţiat o tradiţie, care continuă şi astăzi : când copiii ei îşi serbau aniversarea primeau în dar câte două perle.

Grace de Monaco, simbolul eleganţei
Grace Kelly, actriţa care avea să devină prinţesă de Monaco, a rămas în istoria secolului XX ca un simbol al stilului, eleganţei şi frumuseţii.De la haine, accesorii şi bijuterii care poartă amprenta originală a stilului ei uşor de recunoscut, la documente, fotografii inedite şi scrisori personale, toate poartă amprenta acestei celebrităţi. Printre piesele deja cunoscute se numără rochia din satin albastru, purtată în martie 1955 la festivitatea Premiilor Oscar, când Grace Kelly a câştigat celebra statuetă pentru rolul său din The Country Girl. La gâtul actriţei sclipea discret şi rafinat un şirag de perle ! În luna mai a aceluiaşi an, când Grace a participat la Festivalul de Film de la Cannes, l-a întâlnit pentru prima oară pe prinţul Rainier III de Monaco, întâlnire care avea să-i schimbe pentru totdeauna destinul. Rochia din tafta cu motive florale, creaţia unui stilist american şi purtata la aceast eveniment era înnobilată de un colier din perle, care se înfăşura în jurul gâtului de trei ori. Stilul ei vestimentar al suveranei din Monaco era caracterizat prin linii simple, materiale de calilate superioară, culori pastelate. Purta haine elegante: costume bine croite din tweed, rochii pe talie, pălării cu un voal. Ca accesorii avea mănuşi albe, eşarfe de mătase şi pantofi cu toc jos. Ca machiaj, folosea farduri foarte discrete. Părul era neted, întins şi folosea puţine bijuterii, şi acelea mici, fine, discrete, perlele albe, roz şi albăstrui.
Prinţesa Grace a adus un plus de stil şi clasă în tot ceea ce făcea, stabilind standardele în modă pentru următoarii ani. De exemplu, în 1956 a ajuns la New York purtând o geantă mare, aproape pătrată pe care o cumpărase de la Hermes, din Paris. Din acel moment, acest tip de poşetă a ajuns să fie cunoscut sub numele de "geanta Kelly". Ea nu a adoptat un stil, ci a creat unul, refuzând să-i copieze pe alţii. Imaginea sa era diferită de cea a divelor voluptoase ale epocii. Nu avea nevoie de artificii sau de ţinute provocatoare pentru a-şi sublinia farmecul.

Diana, fascinată de bijuterii
Deşi regina Elisabeta II a purtat întotdeauna şi poartă în continuare la întâlnirile oficiale măcar un şirag de perle, cea care le-a adorat a fost lady Di, soţia prinţului Charles, viitorul rege al Marii Britanii. Popularitatea şi gustul desăvârşit al prinţesei Diana au relansat moda colierului din perle, atât de elegant şi de aristocratic, aşa cum regina nu a reuşit. Chiar de la intrarea ei în familia regală Windsor, prinţesa de Gales n-a făcut altceva decât să-şi afirme preferinţa pentru aceste pietre preţioase, şi a cheltuit sume importante pentru a achiziţiona bijuterii cu perle. Le-a purtat şi cu rochii de zi, şi cu ţinute de gală. Prinţesa a reuşit să convingă lumea că perlele sunt mai mult decât un accesoriu, ele fiind o parte integrantă a modei.
Cel dintâi colier de perle primit de Diana a fost un cadou din partea familiei sale, când avea 18 ani şi era format dintr-un şirag ce se înfăşura de trei ori în jurul gâtului, având o broşă tot din perle şi turcoaze. Lady Di avea perle în toate variantele : de la un simplu şirag şi până la colier cu perle foarte mari, cu broşă de zafir şi diamante, pe care l-a primit ca dar de nuntă ; preferat era un spectaculos colier clasic de perle naturale, dar de culoare gri-obscur, primit de la prinţul Charles. Un alt favorit era un colier cu două şiraguri şi cu o perlă mare, ca o broşă. Bijuteriile cu perle îi atrăgeau atât de mult atenţia prinţesei de Gales, până într-atât, încât le împrumuta sau le punea şi atunci când nu era chiar un moment potrivit.Colierul cu cinci şiraguri pe care Diana îl purta la plecarea din palatul Buckingham, după recepţia de la nunta sa, era primit de la sora sa mai mare, lady Sarah McCorquodale. Uimitor este însă că multe dintre bijuteriile sale cu perle, sau cu diamante şi perle, erau imitaţii ; dar cel mai interesant din toate acestea este că prinţesa nu se sfia să spună celor care o întrebau că da, nu toate bijuteriile ei erau într-adevăr foarte valoroase.

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:47 pm

Queen Victoria wearing the George III Tiara (The First of May: Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, The Duke of Wellington and baby Prince Arthur)

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:48 pm

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:48 pm

Queen Victoria wearing the Diamond Collet Necklace, Earrings and her large diamond bracelet.

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:49 pm

King George V and Queen Mary 1914. Queen Mary wearing the State Diadem, The complete set of Queen Victoria's Bow Brooches (down the front of her dress), The Cullinan III & IV (pendant from necklace) several diamond collet necklaces and a pearl and diamond bracelet now frequently worn by the Queen.


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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:50 pm

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:50 pm

Queen Alexandra (centre) wearing the George IV State Diadem



The George IV State Diadem, here worn by Queen Alexandra (centre). This image shows Queen Alexandra, consort of Edward VII, with her daughters Louise and Victoria.


Ultima editare efectuata de catre utzy in Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:51 pm, editata de 1 ori
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:51 pm

Queen Mary wearing the Prince Albert sapphire brooch and the Caroline and Anne pearls.

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:51 pm

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:52 pm

Kokoshnik Tiara Circa 1910



UK - Russian Kokoshnik Tiara


kokoshnik Tiara
Kokoshnik (Russian Fringe) tiara of Queen Alexandra



The Russian Style Kokoshnik Tiara
Queen Alexandra, the wife of King Edward VII, commissioned Garrard's to create this tiara in the style of a Russian peasant girl's headdress. Her sister Princess Dagmar, who had become Empress Marie of Russia, had a similar tiara which was the inspiration for the Kokoshnik. It is composed of sixty-one platium bars and filled with 488 diamonds.
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:53 pm


UK - Russian Kokoshnik Tiara - Queen Alexandra
UK - Russian Kokoshnik Tiara - Queen Mary

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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:54 pm


Queen Alexandra and daughters' daughter
Queen Alexandra (wearing the famed Russian Kokoshnik Tiara), with her daughter Louise, Princess Royal (far left wearing the Fife Tiara) and mother Queen Louise of Denmark, all wearing tiaras.
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:54 pm



This tiara was given to Princess May of Teck as a wedding gift. Lady Eve Greville's committee raised the money from "the girls of Great Britain and Ireland" for the tiara, which garnered more than £5000.

May, a German princess, was engaged to Prince George, son of King Edward VII. She would be known later in life as the formidable Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth II's mentor in all things royal.

http://www.mandysroyalty.org/RoyalJewels-t.html
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:55 pm

Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara

Origin of Name

The Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara was designed and executed in 1913 by E. Wolff & Co. for the royal jewelers Garrards, who were commissioned by Queen Mary, the Queen consort of King George V, to create a tiara based on the design of one owned by her maternal grandmother Princess Augusta of Hesse, the Duchess of Cambridge, wife of Prince Adolphus, the Duke of Cambridge, who was the seventh son of King George III. The Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara gets its name from the original Lovers Knot Tiara owned by Princess Augusta of Hesse, the Duchess of Cambridge, which was given to her by her family at the time of her marriage to Prince Adolphus in 1818. The original Lovers Knot Tiara was subsequently given as a gift by Princess Augusta to her eldest daughter Augusta Caroline at the time of her marriage to Grand Duke Friedrich Wilhelm of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Lovers Knot bows were part of the design of the tiara, which was repeated along the entire length of the tiara, and from which originated two drop-shaped pearls, one hanging down and the other rising up like a spike. Thus the name Lovers Knot is derived from the repeated theme of this Gothic revival tiara.


Characteristics of the Tiara
The Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara originated in the mid-Georgian period and shows features of Gothic Revival style

The Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara of 1913, is based on the design of the original Lovers Knot Tiara of 1818, which undoubtedly has Gothic Revival features. The Georgian era in the history of jewelry extends from the period of rule of King George I, beginning in 1714 to the end of the period of rule of King George IV in 1830. This period can be divided into three sub-periods, early-Georgian, mid-Georgian and late-Georgian, each with its own style of jewelry. The early-Georgian period from 1714 to around 1790s was characterized by Rococo styles, the mid-Georgina from around 1790s to 1820s by the Gothic Revival and the Late-Georgian 1820s to 1830s by the Neo-Classical styles. However there had been considerable overlapping of styles from one period to another. The mid-Georgian and Napoleonic era in France coincide with one another, and while in England the style adopted was Gothic Revival, in France it was Neo-Classical. The Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara, which originated in 1818 in England, thus shows features of Gothic Revival jewelry.



The 1913 version of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara with the spikes removed.

The Romantic movement in the early 19th century inspired artists of the period to look to the past for purity of artistic expression. This led to the revival of Gothic style of the Medieval period in literature, architecture and the decorative arts. In the area of jewelry crafting, jewelry craftsmen had just a few examples of Medieval jewelry from which they could draw inspiration. Thus the jewelry craftsmen turned to Gothic architecture for inspiration. Pointed arches, trefoils and gargoyles copied from Gothic cathedrals provided motifs for jewelry. Features of Gothic jewelry included quatrefoils, trefoils, vesica piscis, pinnacles, scrolls etc.


Gothic Revival features in the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara

The circlet of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara is made up of a lower semi-circular band, set with a row of round brilliant-cut diamonds. Nineteen inverted arches arise from the lower band, also set with round brilliant cut diamonds. Where two adjacent arches meet a pillar-like structure is formed that rises up and ends in a large round brilliant-cut diamond, forming a diamond spike. There are nineteen diamond spikes of this nature, and the size of these diamonds decrease gradually from the center towards both ends. A combination of lovers knots and scroll motifs is placed at the upper end of each inverted arch. The center of each lovers knot is occupied by a large round brilliant-cut diamond, from which arises two large drop-shaped pearls, one suspended in the space inside the inverted arch, and the other rising above the surface of the tiara as a spike. There are nineteen arches and nineteen drop-shaped pearls inside the arches, and nineteen drop-shaped pearls rising as spikes, making a total of 38 drop-shaped pearls. The largest drop-shaped pearl is exactly in the central arch of the tiara, with nine drop-shaped pearls gradually decreasing in size occupying the nine arches on either side. The pearl spikes that rise up above the surface of the tiara also follow a similar trend in size and arrangement. Thus the Lovers Knot Tiara is perfectly symmetrical about its median line. The tiara is essentially made of repeated units of the same motif, consisting of the inverted arch, with the lovers knot and the scrolls and the two pearls, the pendant and the spike situated inside the arch.

The predominant neo-Gothic or Gothic-revival features in the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara are the 19 arches and the incorporation of 19 pearl spikes and 19 diamond spikes rising above the surface of the tiara. The shape of the drop-shaped emeralds, somewhat resembling the Vesica Piscis, a symbol of Christian art in the Medieval period, may also be considered as a Gothic-revival feature in the tiara.


History of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiaras
History of the original Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara
The tiara is given as a gift to Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel in 1818

The original Lovers Knot Tiara designed in the mid-Georgian period in 1818, was given as a gift to Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel by her parents, Prince Frederick of Hesse and Princess Caroline of Nassau at the time of her marriage to Prince Adolphus, the Ist Duke of Cambridge, the 10th born child and the seventh son of King George III. of the United Kingdom and Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Stretlitz. The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge had three children; the eldest being a son Prince George, and the other two daughter, Princess Augusta and Princess Mary Adelaide. In 1838, the Duchess of Cambridge wore the original Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara for the coronation of Queen Victoria in Westminster Abbey.



Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel wearing the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara
The tiara is given as a gift to Princess Augusta of Cambridge in 1843

When Princess Augusta, the eldest daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, married Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Stretlitz in 1843, the Duchess of Cambridge, gave the original Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara as a gift to her daughter. Grand Duke Friedrich Wilhelm and Grand Duchess Augusta, had only one surviving son, Adolf Friedrich, who succeeded his father as Grand Duke in May 1904. Grand Duke Adolf Friedrich who married Princess Elizabeth of Anhalt in 1877, had four children by this marriage, two daughters and two sons.



Princess Augusta of Cambridge wearing the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara.
The tiara is given as a gift to Duchess Jutta in 1899 ?

Their second daughter Duchess Jutta, married Danilo, the Crown Prince of Montenegro, and it appears that the Grand Duchess Augusta, who lived up to the ripe old age of 94 years until 1916, gave the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara to her granddaughter Jutta at the time of her marriage in 1899. After world war I, when Montenegro was incorporated into the new kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, the royal family of Montenegro established a government in exile. Duchess Jutta's father-in-law King Nicholas I died in 1921, and her husband Danilo Aleksandar (Daniel Alexander), succeeded as the titular King of Montenegro. However, he only held the position for a week before abdicating in favor of his nephew Michael. Jutta and her husband Danilo lived in exile in France, where Danilo died in 1939. Jutta then moved to Rome, where her brother-in-law King Victor Emmanuel III reigned, and died in 1946, at the age of 66 years.

Duchess Jutta, married Danilo, the Crown Prince of Montenegro,

Duchess Jutta of Montenegro
The original Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara appears at a Christie's auction in Geneva in 1981

The fate of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara after it came into the possession of Duchess Jutta is not known. The tiara was probably sold in Paris to an anonymous collector while the Duchess was living in exile with her husband in France. The whereabouts of the tiara was unknown until in May 1981, it appeared at a Christie's auction in Geneva, where it was sold to another anonymous buyer for 280,000 Swiss Francs. The present whereabouts of the original Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara is unknown.


History of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara of 1913
King George V ascends the British Throne and Princess Mary becomes the Queen Consort

Princess Mary Adelaide, the second daughter of Prince Adolphus and Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge, married Francis, the Duke of Teck in 1866, and this marriage produced four children, a daughter who was the eldest followed by three sons. The daughter who was born in 1867, was Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, who married Prince George, the Duke of York, and second in line to the British Throne in 1893, a marriage that received the blessings of Queen Victoria, who was her godmother. In 1901, when Queen Victoria died she was succeeded by the Prince of Wales and heir to the British Throne, Prince Albert Edward, who ascended the throne as King Edward VII. Prince George now became the new Prince of Wales and the heir to the British Throne. With the death of King Edward VII in May 1910, Prince George ascended the throne as George V, and Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, became the Queen Consort of the United Kingdom.


The Cambridge and Delhi Dunbar Parure is created for the coronation of Queen Mary

The famous Cambridge and Delhi Dunbar Parure was created by the artisans of Garrard & Co. the Crown Jewelers, using the family emeralds that once belonged to her mother Princess Mary Adelaide and diamonds, some of which came from the original Cullinan diamond weighing 3,106 carats, that was presented to King Edward VII, by the Transvaal Government. The parure was created in anticipation of the coronation of King George V and Queen Mary, that took place on June 22, 1911, and for their subsequent proclamation as the Emperor and Empress of India, at a Durbar that was to be held on December 12, 1911.


Queen Mary commissions the new Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara in 1913

In 1913, Queen Mary commissioned the Crown Jewelers Messrs. Garrard & Co. to construct a tiara based on the design of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara, that was once owned by her maternal grandmother Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel, the Duchess of Cambridge, and subsequently owned by her aunt, Princess Augusta of Cambridge, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. This new lovers knot tiara, also came to be known as the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara, because of the resemblance of its design to the original Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara, and consisted of 19 arches, and 38 drop-shaped pearls, 19 hanging as pendants and 19 rising up as spikes. The 19 pearls that rose up as spikes could also be dismantled. Queen Mary wore the new Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara, both with and without the pearl spikes, removing and adding the upright pearls, as and when she deemed it fit.



Queen Mary wearing the 1913 version of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara, with the pearl spikes intact.
Queen Mary enriches the royal collection by purchasing notable pieces of jewelry

Queen Mary was a notable collector of objects of art, jewels and jewelry, that enriched the royal collection, and took pride in superbly bejeweling herself for formal occasions. She is reported to have paid above market estimates when acquiring jewels with a historic and royal provenance. In 1921, she purchased a diamond and pearl tiara, known as the "Vladimir Tiara" that once belonged to Grand Duchess Maria Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, which was smuggled out of Russia together with other jewels, by a British diplomat, during the October 1917 Bolshevik revolution. Other purchases include the jewels from the estate of Dowager Empress Marie Feodorovna of Russia (the widow of Czar Alexander III and mother of Czar Nicholas II of Russia) who escaped from Russia in 1919, aboard the British ship HMS Marlborough, and settled in London for sometime as the guest of her sister Queen Alexandra and her nephew King George V.



Queen Mary wearing the 1913 version of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara, with the pearl spikes removed and 4 of these pearls are used as pendants on the 4-strandard pearl necklace.
Modern history of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara

Queen Mary died in 1953 at the age of 85 years, just one year after the death of her son, King George V. In her will, she left the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara to her granddaughter Queen Elizabeth II, and thus the renowned tiara entered the personal jewel collection of Queen Elizabeth II. The tiara became a favorite piece of Queen Elizabeth II, who wore it for many formal occasions. Queen Elizabeth II later gave the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara as a wedding gift to Princess Diana, at the time she married Prince Charles, the Price of Wales. It was then that the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara reached the height of its popularity, as the piece came to be associated with the image of the popular princess. However, after her divorce from the Prince of Wales the tiara was returned to Her Majesty the Queen.



Queen Elizabeth II wearing the 1913 version of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara.



Princess Diana wearing the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiara.
Other lovers knot tiaras known to have existed in history

Apart from the two versions of the Cambridge Lovers Knot Tiaras considered in detail on this webpage, other lovers knot tiaras belonging to royal families in Europe and India are also known to have existed. Most of these tiaras were of 19th century origin, as the lovers knot design was popular during this period. Among some of the well known lovers knot tiaras are the following :-

1) The Yussupov Lovers Knot Tiara

The Yussupov Lovers Knot Tiara that belonged to Princess Tatiana Alexandrovna Yussupova (1828-1875), wife of Prince Nikolai Borisovich Yussupov (1827-1891) of the prominent Yussupov aristocratic family of Russia, was one of the most perfectly designed Lovers Knot Tiaras, with 19 arches, and pearl drops hanging as pendants from lovers knot bows inside the arches, and an equal number of pearl drops rising up as spikes. The striking feature of this tiara is its perfect symmetry, with pearl drops similar in size and shape being placed at symmetrical positions on either side of the median line of the tiara, that holds the largest pearl drops. The pearl drops also gradually decrease in size from the center towards both ends of the tiara. A portrait of the princess painted by Winterhalter in 1858 show her wearing the Yussupov Lovers Knot Tiara.



Princess Tatiana Alexandrovna Yussupova wearing the Yussupov Lovers Knot Tiara
2) The Bavarian Lovers Knot Tiara

The Bavarian Lovers Knot Tiara that was worn by Queen Therese of Bavaria (1792-1854), the queen consort of Ludwig I of Bavaria (1786-1868) who ruled between 1825 and 1848. This tiara had 16 arches, with 16 pairs of drop-shaped pearls arising from lovers knot bows, as pendants from below the knots and spikes from above the knots.





Queen Therese of Bavaria, wearing the Bavarian Lovers Knot Tiara
3) The Saxony Lovers Knot Tiara

The Saxony Lovers Knot Tiara, that was worn by Princess Maria Immaculata of Saxony and Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1874-1947). Princess Maria Immaculata was the eldest daughter of Prince Alfonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, and married Prince Johann Georg of Saxony (1869-1938). However, pictures of the Princess wearing the tiara, show only 19 pendant pearls, and the pearl spikes are missing. This is similar to Queen Mary's Lovers Knot Tiara after the removal of the spikes.



Princess Maria Immaculata of Saxony, wearing the Saxony Lovers Knot Tiara.
4) The Patiala Lovers Knot Tiara

The Patiala Lovers Knot Tiara, worn by Maharani Mahindar Kaur of Patiala, the second wife of Maharajah Yadavindra Singh of Patiala (1913-1974), the last of the Maharajahs of Patiala, at the time the state joined the Indian republic in 1948. Maharajah Yadavindra Singh, succeeded his father Bhupinder Singh, as Maharajah of Patiala in 1938. A sports enthusiast, he was the president of the British Indian Olympic Committee from 1938-47, and after Indian independence, president of the Indian Olympic Committee from 1947-1960. He was also the chief organizer of the first Asian Games held in New Delhi in 1951. He served as the Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes from 1943 to 1944. After independence he served as the Chief Indian delegate to the UN General Assembly from 1956 to 1957, and as the delegate to the UNESCO in 1958. He also served as Indian ambassador to Italy from 1965-66 and Netherlands from 1971-74, when he died suddenly in office at the Hague, on June 17, 1974, of heart failure at the age of 61 years. The Patiala Royal Family became internationally renowned for the 5-stranded Patiala Diamond Necklace incorporating the De Beers Diamond, one of the most expensive necklaces ever made, that was designed and executed by Cartier of Paris in 1928.



Maharani Mahindar Kaur of Patiala, wearing the Patiala Lovers Knot Tiara
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MesajSubiect: Re: Royal Jewelry & Tiaras / Fabergé Eggs / The Royals   Mier Ian 09, 2013 9:56 pm

Queen Victoria's Emerald and Diamond Tiara

Origin of name

The origin of the name "Queen Victoria's Emerald and Diamond" Tiara is self explanatory, as the celebrated tiara was once the valued possession of Queen Victoria, the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Empress of India, whose long period of reign of 63 years and 7 months that extended from June 1837 to January 1901 was the longest in the history of the British Monarchy. In keeping with her status as the monarch of the largest and most powerful empire in the world, Queen Victoria had a fabulous collection of jewelry of all varieties such as tiaras, necklaces, chokers, stomachers, brooches, bracelets, earrings, rings etc. set with the most expensive of jewels such as diamonds, emeralds, rubies, sapphires and pearls. The "Queen Victoria's Emerald and Diamond Tiara" was one of the most exquisitely crafted tiaras in her collection, and also one of her favorite pieces of jewelry, designed by her own husband, the Prince Consort, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in the Gothic style.





haracteristics of the tiara
features of Gothic ornaments

The tiara represents a rare and typical example of a 19th century tiara crafted in the Gothic revival style. The Gothic period that influenced art, architecture, literature and jewelry crafting extends from about 1140 A.D. to 1500 A.D. The Gothic style was the successor of the Roman or Romanesque style and was succeeded by the Renaissance style. The Gothic style in architecture was probably influenced by the ogees of Arabic and Middle Eastern origin, and the mathematical influences on architecture that came to Europe from the Islamic nations during the crusades. The ogee shape is one of the characteristics of the Gothic style of architecture, introduced to the European cities from the Middle East. Besides architecture, the Gothic style also influenced the creation of jewelry and artifacts such as sculptures, silverware, book covers and illustrations. The Gothic style was revived in the 19th century and came to be known as neo-Gothic. Gothic ornaments in jewelry had some characteristic features such as Quatrefoils (an ornamental design of four leaves resembling a flower), Trefoils (an ornamental design with three lobes like a clover leaf), Vesica piscis (fish bladder), spikes and pinnacles.


Gothic features in the Queen Victoria Emerald and Diamond tiara

The most prominent Gothic features on the Queen Victoria Tiara are the curved diamond mounted structures and emerald and diamond mounted spikes on the upper side of the tiara. The quatrefoils at the base of the cabochon emerald spikes is another characteristic Gothic feature. Besides this, some of the cabochon emeralds themselves have the vesica piscis shape, another Gothic feature. The vesica piscis, which literally means "the bladder of a fish" refers to a shape formed by the intersection of two circles with the same radius, intersecting in such a way that the center of each circle lies on the circumference of the other. Sometimes the word is used to refer to the biconvex symmetric lens produced by the intersection of the two circles. The ratio of its height to its width is said to be 265:153 which is approximately equal to the square root of 3 or 1.7320508... The number 153 is significant in Christianity, as according to the Gospel of John (21:11), it is the number of fish Jesus caused to be caught in a miraculous catch of fish. Thus the vesica piscis became a symbol of Christian art in the mediaeval period.

The circlet of the tiara is made up of two parallel bands set with hundreds of small round brilliant-cut white diamonds. The two bands are interconnected by short vertical ribs each set with two round brilliant-cut diamonds. Each rectangular space between two ribs is occupied by a large rectangular-shaped emerald. Curved diamond mounted structures arise from the upper band of the circlet, with their curved ends mounted with two large round brilliant diamonds. At the points where the curved structures meet are placed long and short spikes alternating with one another. Each long spike ends with a large drop-shaped cabochon-cut emerald, but the ones towards the ends are almost biconvex in shape like the vesica piscis. The cabochon-cut emerald arises from a quatrefoil at its base. Each short spike consists of a large baroque-cut emerald with a round brilliant-cut emerald placed at its end.


History of the Queen Victoria Emerald Tiara

The Queen Victoria Emerald Tiara was designed by Prince Albert, the Prince Consort of Queen Victoria, who got the tiara executed by the court jewelers under his supervision in the year 1845. Prince Albert while maintaining a low profile during public occasions due to his German ancestry, actively involved himself in the day to day activities of the palace, becoming the chief adviser to the Queen especially after the death of Lord Melbourne, the prime minister. He also took an active interest in the arts, science, trade and industry and was the mastermind behind the Great Exhibition of 1851. Thus the Prince was a man of varied interests, and his ability to design such a unique tiara was not surprising. It is on record that the Prince also took a keen interest in the re-cutting of the Koh-i-Noor diamond in 1852, after its arrival in England from India, in order to improve the brilliance of the stone. He laid the groundwork for the re-cutting after carrying out initial scientific consultations, and obtaining the opinion of leading physicists, mineralogists, and lapidarists of the time. The Duke of Wellington was also involved in this project. The exquisitely crafted "Queen Victoria Emerald and Diamond Tiara" was indeed a testimony to the creative abilities of Prince Albert, a man of varied and multiple interests. It appears that Prince Albert not only designed the "Queen Victoria Emerald and diamond Tiara" but also most other tiaras worn by his beloved wife Queen Victoria. Four tiaras designed by Prince Albert were included in a display of 200 tiaras mostly from royal families of Europe, at the Victoria Albert Museum in 2002.



The fate of the Queen Victoria Emerald and Diamond Tiara

The present whereabouts of the Queen Victoria Emerald and Diamond Tiara is not known, but it is believed that the celebrated tiara is now in the possession of one of the descendants of Queen Victoria. It appears that the "Queen Victoria's Emerald and Diamond Tiara" like the "Queen Victoria's Diamond and Sapphire Tiara" never entered the British Crown Jewels, and being Queen Victoria's personal property was bequeathed to one of her nine children or their descendants. The present owners of the "Queen Victoria's Diamond and Sapphire Tiara" are the Earl and Countess of Harewood. But, the present owners of the "Queen Victoria's Emerald and Diamond Tiara" are not known.

In 1997, an exhibition called "One Hundred Tiaras - An Evolution of Style, 1800-1900" was organized by Geoffrey Munn, managing director of Wartski's jewelry firm, which was founded in 1865 by Morris Wartski, situated in Grafton Street, Mayfair, London; a firm that had held appointments as Jewelers to H.M. the Queen and H.R.H. the Prince of Wales. The exhibition was held at the Grafton Street premises of the jewelry firm. The "Queen Victoria's Emerald and Diamond Tiara" was one of the tiaras displayed at this exhibition. In the year 2001, Geoffrey Munn, published his famous work "Tiaras, A History of Splendor" On page 12 of this book, Geoffrey Munn discusses about the "Queen Victoria's Sapphire and Diamond Tiara" worn in the famous Winterhalter portrait. On pages 72-75 of the book there are several beautiful photos of the "Queen Victoria's Emerald and Diamond Tiara." In discussing about the tiara on page 77, Geoffrey Munn says that the tiara was made by Kitching in 1845, at a cost of £1,150. He also states that the tiara survives intact in the hands of a descendant of Queen Victoria, who was kind enough to lend it to Wartski for the 1997 exhibition.

But, after its appearance in the 1997 exhibition, unsubstantiated reports have circulated that the "Queen Victoria's Emerald and diamond Tiara" had been sold and subsequently dismantled by its new owner.


Exhibition of tiaras at the Victoria Albert Museum in 2002

A second exhibition of tiaras was held at the Victoria Albert Museum from March 21st to July 14th, 2002, also organized by Geoffrey Munn, the managing director of Wartski's jewelry establishment, and was officially declared open by actress Joely Richardson. The exhibition put on display a collection of 200 tiaras, that included not only old and historic pieces loaned from European royal and aristocratic families but also latest creations worn by celebrities such as Victoria Beckham, Joanna Lumley, Elton John, Wonder Woman and Gwyneth Paltrow. It included 20 tiaras of British Royal origin, out of which four were designed by Prince Albert for Queen Victoria. The tiaras designed by Prince Albert included the "Ruby and Diamond Oriental Circlet Tiara" that was worn by Queen Victoria and later Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother. Another tiara designed by Prince Albert was the Gothic style "Diamond and Sapphire Tiara" loaned by the Earl and Countess of Harewood. But, there were no reports of the "Queen Victoria Emerald and Diamond Tiara" appearing at this exhibition, which seemed to confirm earlier reports of its dismantling.

Geoffrey Munn, the curator of the exhibition said, "I doubt whether there will ever be a jewelry exhibition which brings together so many historic and royal tiaras again."

Some of the other remarkable pieces that were on display at the exhibition include:-

The diamond tiara worn by Her Majesty the Queen on her wedding day on 20th November 1947.

A pearl and diamond tiara from the French Crown Jewels.

An early 20th century tiara made for Queen Mary, the grandmother of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

The tiara worn by Victoria Beckham on her wedding day, when she married David Beckham.

Tiara worn by Gwyneth Paltrow in the film "Shakespeare in love."

Tiara worn by Elizabeth Hurley in the film "Bedazzled."

Tiaras produced by contemporary designers like Vivienne Westwood, David Linley, Philip Tracey, Wendy Ramshaw, and others.

Tiaras made of unconventional material such as dog bone, sheep pelvis, feathers, horns, plastic, steel and rubber.

Geoffrey Munn, the organizer of the exhibition, commented after the conclusion of the successful event, "I hope I have managed to convey some idea of the hauteur and elegance that raises these dramatic objects to the position of supremacy they hold over every other type of jewelry."


Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - A short biography
His birth and relationship to Queen Victoria

Albert Francis Charles Augustus Emmanuel, who after his marriage to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, on February 10, 1840, came to be known as Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, and subsequently as His Royal Highness the Prince Consort, was born on August 26, 1819, in Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Bavaria, Germany. He was the second son of Ernest III, the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Albert's aunt, Victoria Maria Louisa of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, had married the Duke of Kent, Prince Edward Augustus, who was the 4th son of King George III of the United Kingdom; and the future Queen Victoria was the only product of this marriage. Thus Albert and Queen Victoria were closely related, being first cousins. Both Albert and Victoria were born in the same year 1819, but Victoria was elder to Albert by about three months, being born on May 24, 1819.



Early childhood and education

Albert was just seven years, when his father divorced his mother on grounds of adultery, and Albert and his elder brother Ernest, grew up together and spent their youth in close companionship. Their mother was exiled to Switzerland and forbidden to see her children. The children were educated by private tutors and later attended the University of Bonn, where Albert studied law, philosophy, economics and art history. As extra-curricular activities he took an interest in music, and excelled in gymnastics, fencing and riding.


Prejudices against Prince Albert

Princess Victoria of Kent, heir to the British throne, succeeded her uncle King William IV, as Queen Victoria on June 20, 1837, at the age of 18 years. She married Prince Albert her cousin, on February 10, 1840, at the age of 21 years. She granted Prince Albert the title of His Royal Highness, and appointed him as member of the Privy Council. Even though the marriage turned out to be a perfect match, a harmonious union that produced nine children, and one of the most successful royal marriages ever solemnized, it became very unpopular initially with the British Parliament and the British public, mainly because of Prince Albert's German origin. The Parliament always tried to exclude Prince Albert from being given a political role, and opposed his ennoblement, and even granted him a smaller allowance than previous consorts. The bitterness of the public against the marriage was clearly manifested when three attempts were made to assassinate the royal couple, first in June 1840, just 4 months after the marriage, by Edward Oxford, who was later judged insane, and two other attempts on 29 and 30 May 1842, by John Francis, who was condemned to death but later reprieved. Miraculously in all three attempts the royal couple was unhurt. The way Prince Albert conducted himself during and after these attacks had a positive effect on his standing in the eyes of the British public and helped to reduce the prejudices against him, and the British Parliament went to the extent of designating him as regent, in the event of Victoria's death before her child reaches maturity.


His services to his adopted country

The great gentleman that he was, Prince Albert fully appreciated the sensitivities of the British parliament and the public, and adopted a low profile initially, being very tactful and diplomatic in his dealings as the Prince Consort. While acting as the Queen's chief adviser and private secretary, after the death of Lord Melbourne, the Prime Minister, he encouraged his wife to take a greater interest in social welfare activities. Albert himself began to take on non-controversial public roles such as President of the Society for the Extinction of Slavery, Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, President of the Society of Arts, and President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. He also involved himself in promoting many public educational institutions. His espousal of science brought him into conflict with the Church, and his proposal for a knighthood for Charles Darwin, after his publication of the "Origin of Species," was rejected. His special interest in the application of science to the manufacturing industry led him to mastermind the Great Exhibition of 1851, in spite of opposition from the House of Lords and the House of Commons, to showcase the industrial achievements attained by Britain, and to bring the best manufactured products of other nations to Britain, that might result in an exchange of technical knowledge and the further improvement of the British manufacturing industry. The exhibition proved to be a colossal success, and one of the greatest achievements of Prince Albert. A total of 186,000 pounds sterling was raised as profits from the exhibition, which Prince Albert used to purchase land in South Kensington, and establish a number of educational and cultural institutions, including what would later be called the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Victoria Albert Museum, South Kensington

Victoria Albert Museum
His final days

His abilities as a great statesman was brought to the forefront in 1861, when he intervened in a diplomatic row between Britain and the United States, that helped to avert war between the two countries. Around this time his health was failing and in spite of that he was busy as ever with arrangements for the next international exhibition. By the beginning of December Prince Albert's condition was very serious, and his doctors diagnosed him as having typhoid fever, complicated by the congestion of his lungs. Then on December 14, 1861, Prince Albert died in the blue room at the Windsor Castle, at the young age of 42 years.


An assessment of his achievements

Prince Albert's contributions to the nation went unrecognized for 17 years, and finally it was only in 1857 that the nation finally recognized his contributions and awarded him the title of Prince Consort, just four years before he died. The 42 years of his life was a life that was well spent in the service of his adopted country. His service to his nation was selfless, and not with the intent of gaining any recognition or peerage that was wrongfully denied to him by parliament. This is strongly borne out by his last request to Queen Victoria and his children before he died, that no effigies of him, by which he meant statutes, memorials and other monuments, should be erected anywhere after his death. Prince Albert indeed was a great statesman, and all services he rendered during a short life span of 42 years was just a practical expression of his beliefs, which was clearly espoused in one of his celebrated speeches: "Wealth is an accident of society, and those that enjoyed its benefits had a duty to those who were, through accident, deprived of it."
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